The composition of world population has changed dramatically in recent decades. Medical advances have given people an opportunity to live longer, healthier and more productive. Increased the expectancy (GREY CHALLENGE) comes with its own set of social, economic and emotional challenges. By 2040, the elderly may consume 50% of the total health care expenditure.
Preventive health care programs can improve/ maintain elderly patient’s health, functional abilities, independence and life satisfaction. These programs can prolong the time before they require admission in hospital. Effective preventive healthcare to the elderly is the need of the hour. Measures or enhance are maintain physical, mental and social function must be emphasized. They can reduce economic burden in the long run. These preventive care procedures may vary between relatively healthy elderly compared with the “frail” elderly.
While cardiac, pulmonary and major central nerves system disorders are reported, disabilities such as urinary incontinence, loco-motor dysfunction, defective hearing and vision, podiatric problems, depression, alcoholism and non-medical social needs are not reported. Hence comprehensive function assessment of elderly patients is very important. Potentially serious psycho-social stresses are common (Undesired retirement, inadequate finances, death of spouse etc). Significant part of elderly has major functional disability (10-20%). Hence, the importance of Psychological elements of health in elderly.
CGA stands for Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment. CGA comprises interdisciplinary proactive approach to generate a senior citizens PROBLEM LIST in following domains:
- Physical assessment.
- Function, social and environmental assessment.
- Psychological components.
- Medication review.
CGA is process of care comprising of number of steps:
- Multi-dimensional holistic assessment.
- Formulation of a plan to address issues.
- Interventions in support of plans.
- Review of progress.